According to Ober and Maddison (2008), Pseudomorphini appears as a branch of the higher Carabidae and associated with Graphipterini and Orthogonini; according to Erwin and Geraci (2008), the adelphotaxon is the tribe Orthogonini. All three tribes are associated in some way with ants or termites. Male genitalia of pseudomorphines have a bonnet-shaped phallobase as in the lebiomorphs, yet their accompanying parameres are large and nearly symmetrical (and in some species the parameres are sparsely setiferous), as in some primitive lineages of the family. Many known lineages of Pseudomorphini have been so highly selected for life with ants (and possibly termites) that external structures do not help much in discovering more normal carabid relatives (cf. Erwin and Amundson, in press).
Taxonomy references: Baehr (1992, 1997); Erwin (2013), Erwin and Geraci (2008); Notman (1925), Ogueta (1967).
Larval references: Erwin (1981); Lenko (1972); Liebherr and Kavanaugh (1985), Moore (1964, 1974, 1983).
Information taken from Erwin, 2013. Beetles that live with ants (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Pseudomorphini): A remarkable new genus and species from Guyane (French Guiana), Guyanemorpha spectabilis
gen. n., sp. n. Zookeys
, 358: 11–23.